Whilst fasting, postpartum bleeding starts again

A woman who gave birth finds her postpartum bleeding has ceased within a week [of giving birth] and then purifies herself, thereafter she fasts alongside the rest of the Muslims in Ramadhaan for a number of days, but then her bleeding starts up again – should she then refrain from fasting in this condition?

Post-partum bleeding continued beyond forty days

I am a young married woman and Allaah has blessed me with twin boys. I completed my [legislated] forty days post-birth (post partum) period on the seventh day of Ramadhaan, yet, my post partum bleeding continued beyond this time; However, the colour of my post partum blood had changed to how it was prior to the forty days (post-partum period), so what is the ruling regarding my [obligation to perform the] salaah and fasting?

Sick woman unable to fast some days last Ramadhaan

I am a sick woman and was unable to fast some days during last Ramadhaan and have been unable to make up [the missed fasts] due to my illness. So what is the expiation for that? Likewise, I am unable to fast Ramadhaan this year, so what is the expiation for that also?

Died whilst having fasts of Ramadhaan to make up

My father died after an illness which prevented him from fasting half the the month of Ramadhaan, and he had requested that I [make up the missed] fasts for those days. So am I required to do that or can I make an expiation [on his behalf]?