Reference: al-Muntaqaa min Fataawa Shaykh Saalih al-Fowzaan – Volume 5, Page 7, Fatwa No.2
Question: Is it permissible for a person to urinate whilst standing, and what is the ruling regarding this?
Response: It is disliked for a person to urinate whilst he is standing, unless he is in need to do that, such as he has an illness and is unable to sit, then there is no harm in him urinating whilst standing. [Also] if the place is dirty and impure such that if he were to crouch down [to urinate] he would be soiled [by the filth around him] or the place is muddy and if he were to crouch down [to urinate] he would be soiled [by the filth and mud around him], then there is no harm in him urinating whilst standing – [so long as he has] a good reason [to do so].
As for without [any good] reason, then it is disliked for him to urinate whilst standing, because this could be a cause for him to become impure from the sprinkles of the urine upon him, and Allaah [alone] has the Complete knowledge [of all affairs].