Reference: Fataawa wa Rasaa.il Mukhtaarah – Page 451
Question: If a man undertook a contract [of marriage] with a woman and then disappeared for three years, is it permissible for her to request a divorce [from him] via the judge? Provide us a legal ruling [and] may Allaah reward you with good.
Response: It is permissible for her to raise her matter with the judge, so he can impose upon him (the husband) to attend [the hearing], and if he refuses to attend, then she is permitted to request the judge to issue a divorce ruling for her.
And with Allaah lies all success.