Reference: Fataawa Noor ‘alad-Darb – Question No.6428, Page 257, Volume 12
Question: When was the Ka’bah built, and who raised the foundations? And why was it named as such?
Response: Allaah (Tabaaraka wa Ta’aala) said:
So Ibraaheem (‘alayhis-salaam) is the one who built the Ka’bah and raised its foundations along with his son Ismaa’eel (‘alayhimas-salaam wat-tasleem). And in some of the early narrations it is mentioned that the Ka’bah was built in the time of Aadam (‘alayhis-salaatu was-salaam), however it was destroyed and disappeared, and then Ibraaheem rebuilt it, and Allaah [alone] has the Complete knowledge [of all affairs].
And as for why it was named ‘Ka’bah’, then it is because it is a square building, and every square building with four corners is called a ‘Ka’bah’.
And Allaah (Ta’aala) has associated this House (the Ka’bah) to Himself, as He (Jalla wa ‘Alaa) said:
And Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) has obligated upon his worshipers that they turn towards it in their prayers, and to perform hajj there once in a lifetime.